HEALTH, HOSPITAL AND ARCHITECTURE.
Health, hospital and architecture -"La reviewed reason". By: Arq.
"The architecture is a love act and not a putting in scene"
Our country has developed almost the totality of its capacity installed during
this last century and the Hospital has been the datum point of the community to
take care of the care of its health. The made efforts to respond to the economic
restrictions and to the idea that the hospitalization only must consider when
does not exist another appropriate alternative, have been it taking to modify
the principles that have governed the hospitable attention from them beginning
of their appearance like excellent institution within our society. By the end of
the century last and principle of this one were developed approximately 60,000
beds and the hospital became the place where the abandoned one goes in search of
aid to its evils; the hospital appears then "of the charity". The medicine with
the progresses that began to register themselves in century XIX in the field of
science and the technology will be transforming it into the time, in a center of
medical aid of reference. In this period the European hospital is the form that
is transferred to our country; the horizontal hospital and pabellonal call of
"French plant" (3) settles in Argentina (Hospital Mejia Branches City of Bs.As.).
After World War II the progress of the medical advances follows a rate
accelerated and our country, watching already at North America, develops 65,000
hospitable beds (1940/1955). The vertical hospital makes its entrance in the
urban plot of the cities. The skyscraper of the north (4) se transfers to our
means and will arise the modern hospital, the hospital in height "the hospital
of the disease". (Hospital General School San Martin City of Bs. Ace.) This
hospital in the last decades of the century will become, with a sophistication
and medical complexity of spread, in "the hospital of the medical excellence"
and will incorporate the sense of operative indetermination (project Argentine
BID/ government 1987). Today 150,000 beds exist in the country approximately.
These three hospitable typologies; adopted more than adapted (5), they continue
working integrated or no, according to they are the economic possibilities
partner of the population. The charity, the disease and the medical excellence,
are present in different measurement in each hospital, according to are the
possibilities of development of the same one in their average economic partner.
In the present the hospital of the charity, the one of the disease and the one
of the medical excellence have been facing new proposals that disarticulate to
this Hospital of three times and three spaces generated for 100 years. Today we
attended the birth of a new conception of Hospital, that does not respond to the
image of the charity already, neither of the disease, nor of the medical
excellence but to a reorientation of the political thought of market, and its
sign - we dare to affirm is "the hospital of the product"; understanding by
product to the result of a process that it has to satisfy the necessity with
"another one", that covers the expenses and leaves a benefit. This product can
be called: urgency attendance; attendance of I diagnose by images; attendances
for laboratory studies; attendance for dialysis; etc. In the hospital the
necessary bottoms are due to collect so that it can subsist. This "necessity" of
subsistence turns it an object that must be appreciated by the demand and here
the medical-architectonic proposal of "new and attractive images" begins the
then. The market is guiding to us towards hospitals that approach more the
Shopping, to the Supermarket that to the image of a center of solidarity of the
society to alleviate its anguishes, they’re fears and their pains. The image and
the architectonic form, prevail over the primary target that is the attention of
the man. The hospital and its architectonic answer have entered a field where;
like in the Shopping and the Supermarket; the image must sell. It is necessary
to make box. The images of the hospital of the product have been based on the
establishment of the medical-architectonic attraction an expression but of
modernity, where the cartoon has supplanted to the same object. The progressive
spirit, just like the historicity deficiency is replaced by the appointment. The
question is that the essence of the work seems to be forgotten. It would seem
that in this attempt of "globalization of the planet" - in this debilitated and
beautiful Argentina - we continued adopting instead of adapting.